Types of verbs in the English language
A verb (Verb) is an independent part of speech that expresses the action of an object or person or their state. Sentences for linking verbs answer the question “what to do?”, “what to do?”.
English verbs change according to person (I, You, He, etc.), number (singular or plural), and time in a sentence. Verbs have a passive and an active voice, a mood, and four aspects (indefinite, continuous, perfect, and perfect-long). A distinction is also made between transitive and non-transitive verbs.
I work every Sunday and Matt works as well. – I work every Sunday and Matt works as well. (different persons).
Ann worked yesterday and she will work tomorrow. – Ann worked yesterday and she will work tomorrow. (different times)
This project must be finished today. Work! – This project must be finished today. Work! (passive voice and imperative)
English verbs can have the same forms as other parts of speech (nouns, adjectives), but verbs are often used with the to particle in the infinitive form and come after the subject in the sentence. More: https://argoprep.com/blog/adverb-clauses-expanding-your-writing/.
Your answer is correct. – Your answer is correct. (Noun).
You have to answer all my questions. – You have to answer all my questions. (verb).
Claire quit her job and her friend Monica acted in a like manner. – Claire quit her job and her friend Monica acted in a similar manner. (adjective).
I really like this book. – I really like this book. (verb)
Types of verbs by formation
English verbs are divided by their form into simple, derivative, compound, and compound verbs.
Simple verbs (simple verbs) consist of a single root without added suffixes or prefixes.
The derived verbs are formed by means of certain suffixes or prefixes added to the root.
to undo, to go back.
compound verbs are formed by joining two bases into one word. These verbs do not occur very often in English.
To daydream – to daydream.
to browbeat – to frighten, to scare
to kickstart – to spur.
Compound or phrasal verbs (composite verbs) consist of a verb and an afterword (a preposition or adverb). These verbs must be understood as one indivisible word, because their meaning can sometimes be very different from the meaning of the verb and the post-verb separately.
to bring up – to bring up, to call up
to give up – to give up, to give in, to give up doing something
to do away – to end, to finish, to kill.
to break through – to break through, to succeed
Verb types by function
English verbs are divided by their functions into semantic verbs, link verbs, auxiliary verbs and modal verbs.
Notional verbs are independent verbs that have their own lexical meaning and do not need additional words. Notional verbs indicate the action or state of an object and are simple predicate verbs. These verbs are the most numerous.
I love this world! – I love this world!
I believe Matt is a cool guy. – I believe Matt is a cool guy.
I wanted to write a letter to my friend from France. – I wanted to write a letter to my friend from France.
Link verbs are verbs which have in some way lost their own meaning and are used to link the subject with other members in the sentence. Link verbs do not express the action of an object and so they are part of a complex noun predicate.
To seem, to be thought of.
to turn – to become
to prove – to prove
to get, to become, to be
to smell, to have a smell
to look, to appear
to stay, to stay the same
to grow – to make, to become
to feel – to feel, to seem
to taste, to be tasteful
Teddy is my best friend. – Teddy is my best friend.
Mom becomes very angry when I break something. – Mom becomes very angry when I break something.
You look tired. You should rest a bit. – You look tired. You should rest a bit.
Auxiliary verbs are verbs that have completely lost their lexical meaning (not translated) and are used to form grammatical constructions and verb forms. Through them the categories of person, number and time are expressed.
Will you be free tomorrow? – Will you be free tomorrow?
I don’t know this woman. I have never seen her before. – I don’t know this woman. I have never seen her before.
We are working this week so we shall go to the zoo next Sunday. – We are working this week so we will go to the zoo next Sunday.
Modal verbs are a special group of verbs that have a specific lexical meaning (the speaker’s attitude towards the specific action) but cannot be used alone, without a meaningful verb.
How dare you come here! – How dare you come here!
You shall not pass! – You shall not pass! (I won’t let you!)
Jack could have helped us. – Jack could have helped us.
Verbs with different functions
Sometimes the same verb in English can have different meanings and thus belong to different verb groups.
I do exercises every morning. – I do exercises every morning. (sense verb)
Do you want to go to the party? – Do you want to go to the party? (auxiliary verb)
Now turn right and stop the car near that big tree. – Now turn right and stop the car near that big tree. (sense verb).
Ann turned red when we started to talk about Paul. – Ann turned red when we started talking about Paul. (link verb).
Most auxiliary verbs can be used as modal verbs, but with a different connotation.
I shall do my homework tomorrow. I’m lazy now. – I will do my homework tomorrow. I’m lazy now. (auxiliary verb).
You shall not say such things in my house! – You shall not say such things in my house! (modal verb)
Kate woke me up early so I should not miss my bus. – Kate woke me up early so I should not miss my bus. (The auxiliary verb should as a past form of shall.)
You shouldn’t have said these words to Alice. – You shouldn’t have said these words to Alice. (should as a modal verb)